Guadalajara: The city of Guadalajara is the capital of the State of Jalisco and the second most important and largest urban area in the Mexican Republic. For several years it was named "The City of the Roses", "The City of the Fountains" and "The Royal City", even though, the best known was "The Pearl of the West". Moreover, Guadalajara is one of the most representative cities of Jalisco, known world as the capital of folklore due to the traditional Mariachi, popular dances, handcrafts, traditional cuisine, tequila and the national sport, charrería.
The word Guadalajara comes from the Arab word "Guadal - jil - hara", which means "River that runs between rocks". The city is named after the native city of Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán who, looking for bigger and more important kingdom than that of Hernán Cortés, was a conqueror of this land. Guadalajara was founded on four different occasions; the first time in 1535 in Nochistlán (today part of the State of Zacatecas); the following year it was transferred to the town of Tonalá. On the third occasion is was founded in 1539 after a great battle between the Indians and the Spaniards; fought on the hill of Mixtón where the famous Spaniard Pedro de Alvarado lost his life.
Finally, on February 14th, 1542, Doña Beatriz Hernández led 64 families into the Valley of Atemajac, on one side of the river San Juan de Diós, and founded the city of Guadalajara under the Royal order of Charles V. Jalisco.
The State of Jalisco is located on the western side of the Mexican Republic, bordered on the north by the states of Durango, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes; on the northwest by Nayarit; on the northeast by Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi; on the south by Colima; on the southeast by Michoacan; and on the southwest by the Pacific Ocean. Jalisco covers an area of approximately 177 square miles, representing 4.09% of Mexico's total area.